Judith W.

Judith W.


Williamsburg, VA 23185

Will travel 40 miles

$50 per hour.

4.85 96 ratings


Why You Should Choose Me As Your Science Tutor. My undergraduate studies were at Virginia Commonwealth University in 1987 with degrees in Biology, Chemistry and Math. I graduated from William and Mary with a MaED in Education in 1990 with endorsements in Biology, Chemistry, Earth Science, General Science II, and math up to and including Calculus. I then took classes at the University of Virginia at the Post Graduate level. In addition to my certifications I have 28 years of successful t... [more]

Algebra 1

The main goal of tutoring is to provide students with a thorough and extensive study of linear and quadratic functions, and graphing on the xy-coordinate system in support of classroom instruction. Students will receive instruction above what is provided by the classroom teacher, and guided and individual practice in solving and graphing equations and inequalities, word problems, ratios and proportions. Homework help is available upon request. Tutoring starts off with a quick review of basic algebraic concepts, such as variables, order of operations, exponents and problem solving skills. Students gain confidence thorough introduction to functions, the basis of all of algebra and higher mathematics, such as calculus. Students will learn how to solve linear equations, including multi-step equations, equations with multiple variables and equations involving decimals, as well as write a linear equation based on the graph of a line. Tutoring usually involves 3 parts: an independent lesson on what is being covered by the classroom teacher, guided practice, then individual practice. I can provide the individual practice, or the student can bring their homework and we can use those problems. Often before a major quiz or test, I will incorporate test taking skills into the tutoring session to build student confidence. I end the session by making sure my students feel confident in the material covered and ask if there is anything they feel I need to do to improve their session. I am willing to maintain contact with teachers and parents as to progress if that is necessary for the student's success.

American History

American History is designed as a concentrated study of our nation from post American Civil War to the present. Students will develop a historical and ethical empathy for the application of history's lessons to future problem solving. Critical thinking and writing will be emphasized. Current issues will be discussed and evaluated in their historical context. The twentieth century has witnessed profound changes and will be the focus of intense study. Topics: The Birth of Modern America (1865-1900 Imperialism and Progressivism (1880-1920) Boom and Bust (1920-1941) Global Struggles (1931-1960) A Time of Upheaval (1954-1980) Toward Equality and Social Reform (1954-1976) A Changing Society (1968 ? Present)


General biology is an introductory course that attempts to cover scientific concepts that may affect you as an individual in our society. As is the case with any science course, there will be a large number of terms for you to learn. Do not try to learn all of these the night before the test. Taking this course is like taking a foreign language because of all of the scientific terminology. Material at the end of the semester will build on material from earlier in the semester, therefore you truly need to learn the material as we go. Cramming the night before the tesst will not put the material into your long term memory. At the end of tutoring you should have a basic understanding of important biological processes and understand the terminology associated with these processes. Topics Covered A. Course Overview B. Characteristics of Living Things C. The Nature of Science Compared to Non-Science D. Scientific Method E. Experimental vs. Observational Science II. Chemistry A. Atomic Structure: Subatomic Particles, Electron Shells B. Chemical Bonding: Covalent, Ionic, Hydrogen Bonds C. Biologically Important Compounds and Molecules III. Cell Biology A. Comparison of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cell Structures B. Eukaryotic Cell Structure 1. Parts of the cell 2. Membrane Structure and Function 3. Movement Across Membranes C. Energy Conversion in E1. Dominant/Recessive 1. Laws of Thermodynamics 2. Energy Flow: Photosynthesis, Cell Respiration IV. Genetics: Heredity A. Mendel's Laws and Modern Genetic Terminology B. Monohybrid Crosses and Dihybrid Crosses C. Patterns of Inheritance Multiple Allele D. The Genetics of ABO and Rh Blood Groups V. Genetics: Molecular A. Structure and Replication of DNA B. Structure of RNA C. Transcription and Translation D. Control of Expression E. Techniques of Molecular Genetics 1. DNA Fingerprint 2. PCR 3. Techniques For Inserting Genes Into Cells VI. Origin of Life A. Spontaneous Generation B. Chemosynthetic Origin 1. Inorganics to Organics 2. Organics to Macromolecules 3. Protocells 4. Other Considerations (RNA World?) As Time Permits VII. Evolution (Origin of Species) A. History of Development of Evolutionary Principle B. Mechanisms of Evolution C. Other Evolutionary Topics D. Organisms (Evolution) E. Speciation VIII. Diversity of Nature Survey A. Kingdom Survey Monera B. Kingdom Survey Protista C. Kingdom Survey Fungi D. Kingdom Survey Plantae E. Kingdom Survey Animalia IX. Population Dynamics A. General Population Characteristics B. Human Population Dynamics X. Ecology A. Ecosystem Structure B. The Flow of Energy in Ecosystems C. Ecosystem Development D. Biogeochemical Cycles E. Succession F. Others Topic in Ecology


Chemistry is designed to provide an excellent background for college chemistry and is designed for those students who plan on majoring in science or a related fields. Tutoring will include in-depth study of the following topics: Matter: Classification and Description, Measurement, Mathematical concepts applicable to chemistry, Atomic Theory and Structure, Chemical Formulas and Nomenclature, Mass and Energy Relationships in Reactions, Reactions in Aqueous Media, Gases, Thermochemistry, Quantum Theory, and Periodic Relationships of the Elements. Tutoring places extra emphasis on rigorous applications (mathematical and chemical).


You will participate in activities designed to enable you: ? to comprehend and use the 570 words on the Academic Word List ? to become aware of techniques for remembering new vocabulary ? to develop personal strategies for learning and reviewing new vocabulary ? to use an English-English dictionary to aid in word pronunciation, to determine the part of speech of a word, to choose from multiple meanings in the dictionary according to context, and to recognize and analyze related word forms, roots, and affixes. ? to utilize learned vocabulary in a variety of academic speaking, listening, writing, and reading activities ? to recognize and use the different forms of a word (noun, verb, adjective, adverb) ? to learn the meanings of word parts (roots, prefixes, and suffixes) and apply them to interpret unknown words in a text. ? to learn and use common phrases (collocations) associated with the Academic Word List ? to read and understand a variety of academic texts which contain words from the Academic Word List ? to use context clues to deduce the meaning of new vocabulary items without the aid of a dictionary in order to facilitate comprehension ? to become knowledgeable of the computer resources available for vocabulary building (the Houghton Mifflin website and other academic vocabulary Internet sites) *Academic Word Lists are generally provided by the teacher and are grade specific. Tutoring will focus on your students Academic Word List.


Punctuation test Apostrophes overview used incorrectly with plurals in time expressions to replace letters to show the plural of abbreviations to show possession Colons to extend a sentence in references for introductions with bullet points before quotations Commas after setting the scene after a transitional phrase after an interjection before a conjunction to replace brackets in lists with a long subject with numbers with speech marks when addressing someone Dashes to extend a sentence to replace brackets Hyphens in compound adjectives in compound nouns in prefixes alternatives to hyphens Parentheses (Brackets) overview of round parentheses overview of square parenthesis replaced by commas or dashes Semicolons before conjunctions before transitional phrases in lists to extend a sentence Speech Marks with colons or commas and three dots (ellipsis) and punctuation (inside or outside) for ships, plays and books doubles (") or singles (') meaning alleged or so-called Parts-of-speech test Adjectives What are adjectives? What are compound adjectives? Adverbs What are adverbs? What are adverbial clauses and phrases? Conjunctions What are conjunctions? and commas and semicolons Interjections What are interjections? Nouns What are nouns? different types Prepositions What are prepositions? at the end of a sentence and what follows (e.g. who versus whom) and verbs (succinct writing) Pronouns What are pronouns? different types Verbs What are verbs? Confused-words Easily Confused Words accept and except adoptive and adopted advice and advise adverse and averse affect and effect aid and aide a lot, allot and alot allowed and aloud allude and elude altar and alter amoral and immoral appraise and apprise [more...] Grammatical-terms abbreviation absolute possessive abstract noun accusative case acronym active sentence active voice adjective adjective clause adjective phrase adjunct adverb adverbial clause adverbial phrase affix analogy anastrophe antecedent antonym appositive archaism article aspect auxiliary verb [more...] abbreviations an or a BBC or B.B.C. BC and AD contractions (Mr or Mr.) e.g. and i.e. plurals (PCs or PC's) adjectives an or a auntie June or Auntie June compound adjectives expressions like 3-and-a-quarter million extremely-talented or extremely talented actor hers or her's, ours or our's its and it's Red Lion Lawn or Red Lion lawn well-known actor or well known actor [more...] Abbreviations AD, BC, BCE and CE contractions (Mr or Mr.) e.g. and i.e. forming plurals with or without full stops (periods) All Of & All Right 'all of' or 'all' 'all right' or 'alright' test An or A 'an' or 'a' Bullet Points using bullet points Capital Letters in advertisements and the points of the compass with proper and common nouns and the four seasons with moons, stars and planets to start sentences and title case Comparatives and Superlatives and superlatives of adjectives and superlatives of adverbs Either & Neither double negative with neither/nor singular or plural verb Extend a Sentence extend a sentence Numbers as compound adjectives (e.g. one-and-a-half) written in full (e.g. twenty-four) at the start of sentences Parenthesis choice of parentheses Singular and Plural forming plurals forming plurals (table) plurals of compound nouns (e.g. mothers-in-law) fewer and less agenda, criteria, data, media (plural or singular) collective nouns (e.g. jury, team) - singular or plural? Phrases like 'a box of tapes' - singular or plural?) number and number of - singular or plural?) subject-verb agreement There, They're & Their there, their and they're Than Me or Than I? than me or than I? Too & To to (infinitive verb; e.g. to run) to (preposition; e.g. go to the park) too (meaning as well; e.g. I am too.) too (meaning in excess; e.g. too dark) Vocative Case What is the vocative case? Which, That & Who with commas with no commas Who & Whom.

European History

COURSE OUTLINE FIRST SEMESTER ? Introduction and the Late Middle Ages ? The Renaissance ? The Reformation & the Age of Religious Warfare ? Absolutism: Western and Eastern Europe ? Scientific Revolution, the Enlightenment & 18th Century Society ? The Age of Revolution SECOND SEMESTER ? Industrial Revolution, Ideology and Reaction ? Nationalism and Imperialism ? World War I and the Age of Anxiety ? Totalitarianism, World War II and the Cold War ? The Post War World and Today


Course Description: This course assumes that the student has demonstrated a solid foundation in algebra. Topics include the relationships between points, lines, and planes; the axiomatic system; logical thinking and proof-writing; measurement, including area and volume; congruency; similarity; two and three dimensional geometric figures; parallel and perpendicular lines; and the coordinate plane. Instruction in this course is designed for college-bound students.


Upon completion of tutoring the student will be able to: 1. Solve problem involving addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of integers, fractions and decimals. 2. State and perform correctly the order of of operation. 3. Calculate whole number powers. 4. Calculate square roots of rational perfect square numbers. 5. Determine prime factorization of whole numbers. 6. Perform conversion among decimals, fractions and percents. 7. Solve problems involving ratios, proportions, and percents. 8. Perform conversion interchanging English and Metric systems. 9. Demonstrate rounding and estimation techniques. 10. Calculate area, volume and perimeter of basic plane figures and solids. 11. Read and interpret tables and graphs. 12. Apply properties of real numbers 13. Simplify and evaluate algebraic expression using order of operation. 14. Use the properties of integer exponents. 15. Perform operations with powers of 10, scientific and engineering notations, and units and units of measurement. 16. Simplify and evaluate square and cube roots. 17. Add, subtract, and multiply polynomials. 18. Divide a polynomial by a monomial. 19. Solve linear equations and inequalities. 20. Solve problems using direct and inverse variations. 21. Graph using slope and y-intercept. 22. Use the Pythagorean Theorem to calculate the third side of a triangle. 23. Translate a verbal statement into a mathematical equation and solve.


Reading is important for a variety of reasons. One of the fundamental reasons is that reading develops the mind. Reading is also a method of discovering new things and adding value to our knowledge base. It is also a vital skill that can help us to find a good job because some well paying jobs require reading as part of job performance.


Who has not gazed with wonder at the night sky? The great canopy of stars stretching overhead suggests that our world is part of a vastly larger cosmos. But how large is it? Where do we fit in? And how did it all begin? These questions have puzzled stargazers for thousands of years, and the search for answers helped spark the great advances of the Scientific Revolution in the 16th and 17th centuries. But only in our own time has the full picture of the true immensity, variety, and surpassing strangeness of the Universe come into focus. Grand Tour of the Cosmos The Rainbow Connection Sunrise, Sunset Bright Objects in the Night Sky Fainter Phenomena in the Night Sky Our Sky through Binoculars and Telescopes The Celestial Sphere The Reason for the Seasons Lunar Phases and Eerie Lunar Eclipses Glorious Total Solar Eclipses More Eclipse Tales Early Studies of the Solar System The Geocentric Universe Galileo and the Copernican Revolution Refinements to the Heliocentric Model On the Shoulders of Giants Surveying Space and Time Scale Models of the Universe Light?The Supreme Informant The Wave-Particle Duality of Light The Colors of Stars The Fingerprints of Atoms Modern Telescopes A Better Set of Eyes Our Sun, the Nearest Star The Earth, Third Rock from the Sun Our Moon, Earth's Nearest Neighbor Mercury and Venus Of Mars and Martians Jupiter and Its Amazing Moons Magnificent Saturn Uranus and Neptune, the Small Giants Pluto and Its Cousins Asteroids and Dwarf Planets Comets?Gorgeous Primordial Snowballs Catastrophic Collisions The Formation of Planetary Systems The Quest for Other Planetary Systems Extra-Solar Planets Galore! Life Beyond the Earth The Search for Extraterrestrials Special Relativity and Interstellar Travel Stars?Distant Suns The Intrinsic Brightnesses of Stars The Diverse Sizes of Stars Binary Stars and Stellar Masses Star Clusters, Ages, and Remote Distances How Stars Shine?Nature's Nuclear Reactors Solar Neutrinos?Probes of the Sun's Core Brown Dwarfs and Free-Floating Planets Our Sun's Brilliant Future White Dwarfs and Nova Eruptions Exploding Stars?Celestial Fireworks! White Dwarf Supernovae?Stealing to Explode Core-Collapse Supernovae?Gravity Wins The Brightest Supernova in Nearly 400 Years The Corpses of Massive Stars Einstein's General Theory of Relativity Warping of Space and Time Black Holes?Abandon Hope, Ye Who Enter The Quest for Black Holes Imagining the Journey to a Black Hole Wormholes?Gateways to Other Universes? Quantum Physics and Black-Hole Evaporation Enigmatic Gamma-Ray Bursts Birth Cries of Black Holes Our Home?The Milky Way Galaxy Structure of the Milky Way Galaxy Other Galaxies?"Island Universes" The Dark Side of Matter Cosmology?The Really Big Picture Expansion of the Universe and the Big Bang Searching for Distant Galaxies The Evolution of Galaxies Active Galaxies and Quasars Cosmic Powerhouses of the Distant Past Supermassive Black Holes Feeding the Monster The Paradox of the Dark Night Sky The Age of the Universe When Geometry Is Destiny The Mass Density of the Universe Einstein's Biggest Blunder? The Afterglow of the Big Bang Ripples in the Cosmic Background Radiation The Stuff of the Cosmos Dark Energy?Quantum Fluctuations? Dark Energy?Quintessence? Grand Unification & Theories of Everything Searching for Hidden Dimensions The Shape, Size, and Fate of the Universe In the Beginning The Inflationary Universe The Ultimate Free Lunch? A Universe of Universes Reflections on Life and the Cosmos


Through World Cultural Geography, students will develop multicultural understanding and use geographical concepts and skills to acquire information and systematically apply decision-making processes to real-life situations. They will acquire an understanding of interrelationships between people and their environment. The content will include, but not be limited to, the following: Study of world cultural regions in terms of a. Location b. Physical characteristics c. Demographics d. Historical changes e. Economic activity r. Land use After successfully completing tutoring, the student will be able to: Use maps, globes, charts, graphs and other tools of geography to gather and interpret data and to draw conclusions about physical and human patterns. Identify the relationships between physical geography and the economic, political, social, cultural and historical aspects of human activity. Understand patterns of population growth and settlement in different cultures and environments. Understand the interaction between culture and technology in the use, alteration and conservation of the physical environment. Understand the interrelationships and interdependence of world cultures, races and religions. Apply research, study, critical-thinking and decision-making skills and demonstrate the use of new and emerging technology in problem solving.

Government & Politics

Tutoring covers a survey of the content and formulation of American foreign policy with an emphasis on the period after World War II. It evaluates the sources of American foreign policy including the international system, societal factors, government processes, and individual decision makers. The course begins with a consideration of major trends in U.S. foreign policy after World War II. With a historical base established, the focus turns to the major institutions and actors in American foreign policy. The course concludes with an examination of the challenges and opportunities that face current U.S. decision makers. A significant component of the course is the intensive discussion of specific foreign policy decisions.


Tutoring focuses on the scientific study of human and animal behavior, including mental processes. Among the subjects studied are the effect of the body on behavior, how people think and learn, what motivates individuals, how children grow and develop, and what makes people behave abnormally. Upon completion of tutoring a successful students will be able to: 1. Define psychology as a science in terms of its history, theories, methods, applied areas, and ethical issues. 2. Describe the structure and function of the nervous system as the biological basis of behavior and cognition. 3. Demonstrate an understanding of the major perspectives of psychology (e.g., behavioral, biological, cognitive, evolutionary, humanistic, psychodynamic, and sociocultural). 4. Apply the major theoretical perspectives to an understanding of personality, lifespan development, abnormal behavior, and psychotherapy. 5. Describe a variety of careers in psychology and how psychology is applied to many areas of life and work today. Topics Covered 1. Introduction to Psychology 2. Psychology: A Science 3. Biological Foundations of Behavior 4. The Nervous System 5. Heredity vs. Environment 6. The Developing Person 7. Sensation and Perception 8. States of Consciousness. 9. Cognitive Processes 10. Learning 11. Memory 12. Cognition & Intelligence 13. Motivation, Emotion, Stress 14. Motivation 15. Emotion and Stress 16. Personality and Abnormality 17. Personality 18. Abnormal Psychology 19. Therapy 20. Social Psychology 21. Social Interaction


Tutoring is to provide exploratory extensions and advanced activities in the structures and functions of the components of the human body. Topics include the study of anatomical terminology, cells, basic chemistry, blood, human systems, immune response, inheritance, and genetic disorders. Emphasis is placed on the integration of systems as they relate to normal health. Outline Introduction Human Body ? Overview of organ systems ? Directional and regional terms ? Cavities and planes ? Homeostasis and negative and positive feedback systems ? Life processes 2. Tissues and Integumentary System ? Cell membranes, transport and junctions ? Structure, function and locations of epithelial, connective, muscle and nerve tissues ? Microscopic identification of tissue types ? Structure and function of skin, (layers and accessory organs) 3. Growth, repair and pigmentation of skin 4. Skeletal System ? Functions of skeletal system ? Anatomy of long bone ? Bone histology ? Naming all bones of axial and appendicular skeleton ? Formation, growth and repair ? Structural and functional classification of joints ? Types of movement ? Calcium homeostasis 5. Muscular System ? Functions of muscular system ? Names of all major muscles ? Origin, insertion and action ? Sliding Filament Model ? Neuromuscular junction ? Structure (gross and microscopic) ? Physiology of muscle contraction ? Muscle metabolism (ATP) ? Fiber types 6. Cardiovascular System ? Functions of circulatory system ? Heart structures (chambers, valves, vessels) ? Circulatory routes (systemic, pulmonary, coronary and hepatic portal) ? Blood vessels and pressure ? Blood components, function and typing ? Blood clotting ? Regulation and conduction (EKG) 7. Lymphatic/Immune System ? Functions of lymphatic system ? Structures (vessels, nodes, cells) ? Lines of defense ? Humoral immune response ? Cell mediated immune response ? Immune cell types ? Disease/AIDS 8. Digestion and Nutrition ? Functions of digestive organs ? Modes of mechanical digestion ? Chemical digestion (hormones, enzymes, pH) ? Absorption and elimination ? Name parts of GI Tract and accessory organs ? Nutrition and metabolism (production of ATP) ? Biological polymers

World History

TUTORING DESCRIPTION: A comprehensive study of critical events and issues that directly relate to the history of the world from the early beginnings of man, to present day events. PURPOSE: Provide students with an accurate historical account and background of domestic/international concerns. To bring greater awareness to a changing political, economic and cultural forces at work within the world. Students will take a closer look at America?s role in the international community with the focus on world history. Topics An Introduction to Global History Studying Cultures and Civilizations The Prehistoric Period The First Civilizations Asian Civilzations The Glory of Greek Civilization The World of RomeQuarter Two The Middle Ages Islam and the Muslim Empire The Civilizations of Africa Early Civilizations in the Americas India and East Asia Europe: Renaissance, Exploration&Reformation The Industrial Revolution Nationalism and Imperialism WWI WWII The Cold War and Other Conflicts The Changing World


Whether you are planning to go to graduate school or business school ? or just exploring your options ? you are taking an important step toward your future. It is a smart move to show schools your best and with the GRE? revised General Test, you can! That's the Power of Confidence ? only with the GRE revised General Test. The GRE revised General Test gives you the Power of Confidence to help you do your best. With the GRE revised General Test, you decide which scores to send to schools. If you feel you didn't do your best on test day, that's okay. You can retake the test and then send only the scores you want schools to see. It's all part of the ScoreSelect? option, only available with GRE? tests. Plus, the GRE revised General Test is the only admissions test for graduate or business school that lets you skip questions within a section, go back and change answers, and have control to tackle the questions within a section you want to answer first. The GRE revised General Test features question types that closely reflect the kind of thinking you'll do in graduate or business school. Verbal Reasoning ? Measures your ability to analyze and evaluate written material and synthesize information obtained from it, analyze relationships among component parts of sentences and recognize relationships among words and concepts. Quantitative Reasoning ? Measures problem-solving ability, focusing on basic concepts of arithmetic, algebra, geometry and data analysis. Analytical Writing ? Measures critical thinking and analytical writing skills, specifically your ability to articulate and support complex ideas clearly and effectively. My study plan philosophy is simple: I provide you with 9 tutorials to help you become familiar with the format of the Quantitative Reasoning section of the GRE test. Along the way, I urge you to practice using as many GRE practice questions as you can from your own GRE study guide. I generally divide the GRE tutoring session into two halves: the first 30 minutes is to go over the Review and complete the problems, the second 30 minutes is to go over things in your GRE review manual. Periodically, I suggest that you take several GRE practice tests, which is the absolutely best way to prepare for the GRE exam. Really. It's that simple. Not at all rocket science! GRE review can be completed in 9 sessions assuming we can cover a topic per session. If more time on a topic is needed, I am always flexible and willing to meet the needs of my individual students. For the Quantitative Reasoning Section, here are the topics covered: Review #1 (Basics) Review #2 (Fractions) Review #3 (Decimals) Review #4 (Percentages, Ratios, Proportions, Averages) Review #5 (Exponents, Radicals, Algebra) Review #6 (Geometry) Review #7 (Specific Techniques for Attacking Quantitative Problems) Review #8 (Charts & Tables) Review #9 (Quantitative Comparison Questions) Each Review comes with a mini review of the topic and some practice problems. I can provide practice tests on each topic as we go along.


Upon completion of tutoring successful students will demonstrate proficiency in the following areas: Critical Analysis and Logical Reasoning 1. Evaluate the quality and sufficiency of evidence and other forms of support for an argument. 2. Recognize the explicit and implicit features in communication. 3. Accurately assess similarities and differences in points of view. 4. Apply critical reading and thinking skills to evaluate and revise arguments, opinions, and claim (including students? own) to avoid deception (self-deception) and conformity. 5. Identify and evaluate: Fact, opinion, reasoned judgment, knowledge, Inference Logic of language Denotative and connotative language, Bias (including ethnocentrism) Inductive and deductive reasoning Logical fallacies Propaganda Analogy as evidence Critical Reading and Thinking Across the Curriculum / Lifelong Learning Objectives 1. Read analytically and think critically at a high level and demonstrate the ability to apply critical thinking skills to interpretation and analysis of ideas encountered in academic reading. 2. Locate, analyze, evaluate, and synthesize information and integrate knowledge across discipline boundaries. 3. Synthesize effective comprehension and critical comprehension in literature, persuasive, argumentative, and other expository readings. 4. Organize their own thoughts and communicate clearly and effectively in speaking, listening, and writing. 5. Develop strategies of information competence and analysis (in reading, writing, speaking, and listening) using current technology. 6. Work effectively in collaborative and group settings. 7. Develop lifelong learning and leadership skills for workplace and professional success. 8. Incorporate metacognitive strategies in critical reading and thinking. 9. Identify and analyze: Figurative language Intent, attitude, tone Ambiguity Value conflicts, judgments, and assumptions Contrasting Perspectives (appreciation and respect for variations in sociocultural distinctions) Reflective Judgment and Problem Solving 1. Identify and evaluate the validity and soundness of arguments. 2. Identify the relevant evidence and experiential background needed to make a decision, solve a problem or create new knowledge. 3. Clarify the facts, concepts, evidence, and relationships that contribute to addressing questions and solving problems. 4. Evaluate the quality and completeness of evidence and other forms of support. 5. Synthesize and revise arguments and findings based on critical reflection. 6. Monitor their own comprehension and apply various strategies to clarify their own thoughts and actions. 7. Develop a habit of intellectual inquiry and reflective judgment and an awareness of their own thinking, perspective, and biases. 8. Employ metacognitive strategies while working within problem solving framework. 9. Recognize and assess the evolution of their own critical thinking, critical reading, and problem solving skills from the beginning to the end of the semester. 10. Recognize and evaluate: Deceptive Statistics Slanted Language Dichotomous Thinking 11. Engage in: Advocacy of ideas Critical revision of arguments Formulation of multiple conclusions

Physical Science

Tutoring will emphasize the basic laws of chemistry and physics. Covering Laboratory and problem solving activities will be available during tutoring. Tutoring the following units: Scientific Inquiry Properties and Classification of Matter Structure and Properties of Atoms Chemical Bonding and Reactions Forces and Motion Nature, Conservation, and Transfer of Energy Nature and Properties of Mechanical and Electromagnetic



The ASVAB consists of the following eight individual tests: General Science Arithmetic Reasoning Word Knowledge Paragraph Comprehension Mathematics Knowledge Electronics Information Auto and Shop Information Mechanical Comprehension Students are provided with scores on each of these individual tests and three Career Exploration Score composites: Verbal Skills, Math Skills and Science and Technical Skills. The battery takes approximately three hours to complete, and test results are returned to schools in a few weeks. The Military uses students' ASVAB scores to identify the occupations that best suit their abilities. Junior, senior and post-secondary school students can use their ASVAB scores for enlistment for up to two years after taking the test. I generally tutor for the General Science, Arithmetic Reasoning and Mathematics knowledge sections, but I can tutor on any specific topic or the overall test with an emphasis on Test Taking Skills. I divide the topics up into 9 lessons. Each lesson comes with a mini review of the topic and some practive problems. Usually we cover one topic per tutoring session (hence the 9 lessons), but I am always willing to tutor the sessions to the individual students needs. For the Arithmetic Reasoning and Mathematical Knowledge, here are the lessons offered: Review #1 (Basics) Review #2 (Fractions) Review #3 (Decimals) Review #4 (Percentages, Ratios, Proportions, Averages) Review #5 (Exponents, Radicals, Algebra) Review #6 (Geometry) Review #7 (Specific Techniques for Attacking Quantitative Problems) Review #8 (Charts & Tables) Review #9 (Quantitative Comparison Questions) For Scientific Knowledge, the 9 sessions come with mini lessons and practice questions. I spend 2 sessions per topic, with the exception of the biology section where I spend 3 sessions due to the amount of material covered. Again, I am happy to tailor the lessons to the individual students needs. Here are the topics covered: Earth science: Under this topic, the Earth's atmosphere, laws governing movement of Earth, questions on Geology and tidal movements are covered. Biology: Under this topic, you will have to answer questions on basic Biology like cellular structure, classification of the plant and animal kingdom, ecology, bio-diversity etc. Other than that, a large number of these questions will be based on human physiology, like the working of the digestive, respiratory, muscular and other similar systems. Chemistry: These questions will cover basic concepts of high school Chemistry, like periodic table, mixtures, compounds, equations, organic Chemistry etc. Physics: The questions on Physics will verify your knowledge of basic concepts like Newton's laws, heat, magnetism, optics etc.


In Ecology, students study how living things interact with each other and their non-living environment. Students will study the web of life and how each strand interacts with the other, and how he/she fits into the web. The interactions of science, technology, and society with the environment will also be studied. Topics Covered: a. Introduction to Ecology and Environmental Science b. Ecological Succession c. Biomes d. Aquatic Ecosystems e. Understanding Populations f. Biodiversity g. Water and Air in our Environment h. Atmosphere and Climate Change i. Land Use and Management j. Energy ? Renewable and Non-Renewable



There are a number of reasons why good spelling matters. Unfortunately, many people pay little attention to correct spelling; perhaps because of the influence of text speak, which has become far too common outside its proper environment. But the use of good spelling isn't simply a question of stubbornly sticking to old rules.

ACT Math

In the Mathematics Test, three subscores are based on six content areas: pre-algebra, elementary algebra, intermediate algebra, coordinate geometry, plane geometry, and trigonometry. Pre-Algebra/Elementary Algebra Pre-Algebra (23%). Questions in this content area are based on basic operations using whole numbers, decimals, fractions, and integers; place value; square roots and approximations; the concept of exponents; scientific notation; factors; ratio, proportion, and percent; linear equations in one variable; absolute value and ordering numbers by value; elementary counting techniques and simple probability; data collection, representation, and interpretation; and understanding simple descriptive statistics. Elementary Algebra (17%). Questions in this content area are based on properties of exponents and square roots, evaluation of algebraic expressions through substitution, using variables to express functional relationships, understanding algebraic operations, and the solution of quadratic equations by factoring. Intermediate Algebra/Coordinate Geometry Intermediate Algebra (15%). Questions in this content area are based on an understanding of the quadratic formula, rational and radical expressions, absolute value equations and inequalities, sequences and patterns, systems of equations, quadratic inequalities, functions, modeling, matrices, roots of polynomials, and complex numbers. Coordinate Geometry (15%). Questions in this content area are based on graphing and the relations between equations and graphs, including points, lines, polynomials, circles, and other curves; graphing inequalities; slope; parallel and perpendicular lines; distance; midpoints; and conics. Plane Geometry/Trigonometry Plane Geometry (23%). Questions in this content area are based on the properties and relations of plane figures, including angles and relations among perpendicular and parallel lines; properties of circles, triangles, rectangles, parallelograms, and trapezoids; transformations; the concept of proof and proof techniques; volume; and applications of geometry to three dimensions. Trigonometry (7%). Questions in this content area are based on understanding trigonometric relations in right triangles; values and properties of trigonometric functions; graphing trigonometric functions; modeling using trigonometric functions; use of trigonometric identities; and solving trigonometric equations.

ACT Science

The content of the Science Test includes biology, chemistry, physics, and the Earth/space sciences (for example, geology, astronomy, and meteorology). Advanced knowledge in these subjects is not required, but background knowledge acquired in general, introductory science courses is needed to answer some of the questions. The test emphasizes scientific reasoning skills over recall of scientific content, skill in mathematics, or reading ability. The scientific information is conveyed in one of three different formats: Data Representation. This format presents graphic and tabular material similar to that found in science journals and texts. The questions associated with this format measure skills such as graph reading, interpretation of scatterplots, and interpretation of information presented in tables, diagrams, and figures. Research Summaries. This format provides descriptions of one or more related experiments. The questions focus on the design of experiments and the interpretation of experimental results. Conflicting Viewpoints. This format presents expressions of several hypotheses or views that, being based on differing premises or on incomplete data, are inconsistent with one another. The questions focus on the understanding, analysis, and comparison of alternative viewpoints or hypotheses.

Elementary Math

Kindergarten Students understand small numbers, quantities, and simple shapes in their everyday environment. They count, compare, describe and sort objects, and develop a sense of properties and patterns. First Grade Students understand and use the concept of ones and tens in the place value number system. Students add and subtract small numbers with ease. They measure with simple units and locate objects in space. They describe data and analyze and solve simple problems. Second Grade Students understand place value and number relationships in addition and subtraction, and they use simple concepts of multiplication. They measure quantities with appropriate units. They classify shapes and see relationships among them by paying attention to their geometric attributes. They collect and analyze data and verify the answers. Third Grade Students deepen their understanding of place value and their understanding of and skill with addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of whole numbers. Students estimate, measure, and describe objects in space. They use patterns to help solve problems. They represent number relationships and conduct simple probability experiments. Fourth Grade Students understand large numbers and addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of whole numbers. They describe and compare simple fractions and decimals. They add and subtract fractions with like denominators and add and subtract decimals. They understand the properties of, and the relationships between plane geometric figures. They collect, represent, and analyze data to answer questions. Fifth Grade Students increase their facility with the four basic arithmetic operations applied to fractions, decimals and positive and negative numbers. They know and use common measuring units to determine length and area and know and use formulas to determine the volume of simple geometric figures. Students know the concept of angle measurement and use a protractor and compass to solve problems. They use grids, tables, graphs and charts to record and analyze data.

Elementary Science

Elementary School Science Kindergarten Kindergarten science in LBUSD is an integrated, hands-on/minds-on, standards based program. Students will study: Matter and its properties Weather Rocks and minerals Life cycles The teacher will use constructivist teaching to convey these exciting areas of science. Approximately 30-40% of science instruction time should be involved in lab activities. These activities will be based on benchmark requirements and will utilize the skills and techniques outlined in the Investigation & Experimentation Strand of the LBUSD Content Standards. First Grade First Grade science in LBUSD is an integrated, hands-on/minds-on, standards based program. Students will study: Changes in states of matter Forces Seasonal changes The ocean and its effects on humans The teacher will use constructivist teaching to convey these exciting areas of science. Approximately 30-40% of science instruction time should be involved in lab activities. These activities will be based on benchmark requirements and will utilize the skills and techniques outlined in the Investigation & Experimentation Strand of the LBUSD Content Standards. Second Grade Second Grade science in LBUSD is an integrated, hands-on/minds-on, standards based program. Students will study: Relationship between matter & gravity. Identifying sound and light as energy forms Major landforms Oceans effects on humans Relate that fossils are used to learn the past Organisms are categorized based on physical features Describe changes in ecosystems The teacher will use constructivist teaching to convey these exciting areas of science. Approximately 30-40% of science instruction time should be involved in lab activities. These activities will be based on benchmark requirements and will utilize the skills and techniques outlined in the Investigation & Experimentation Strand of the LBUSD Content Standards. Third Grade Third grade science in LBUSD is an integrated, hands-on/minds-on, standards based program. Students will study: Simple Machines and their effect on forces The water cycle Rock classification and how rocks were formed Effects of plate tectonics How the Earth, Moon, and Sun interact The structure of the Solar System Natural selection and its effects on populations How the Sun?s energy flows through ecosystems The teacher will use constructivist teaching to convey these exciting areas of science. Approximately 30-40% of science instruction time should be involved in lab activities. These activities will be based on benchmark requirements and will utilize the skills and techniques outlined in the Investigation & Experimentation Strand of the LBUSD Content Standards. Fourth Grade Fourth grade science in LBUSD is an integrated, hands-on/minds-on, standards based program. Students will study: Simple atomic and molecular structure The suns effects on air How charged particles exert electrical and magnetic forces The cell as the basic unit of life, describing its parts and functions The theory of evolutionary change The roll of diversity and interaction in ecosystems Classification of rocks and how they are formed How energy can be transformed from one form to another The teacher will use constructivist teaching to convey these exciting areas of science. Approximately 30-40% of science instruction time should be involved in lab activities. These activities will be based on benchmark requirements and will utilize the skills and techniques outlined in the Investigation & Experimentation Strand of the LBUSD Content Standards. Fifth Grade Fifth Grade science in LBUSD is an integrated, hands-on/minds-on, standards based program. Students will study: The atomic structure of elements and compounds The organization of the Periodic Table The Sun and that its effect on air results in changing weather patterns The Earth?s layers The relationship between plate tectonics and convection currents Objects and processes outside our Solar System Inherited and genetic characteristics Anatomical Systems and how they work together to maintain life

Elementary (K-6th)

I have over 30+ years' experience teaching and tutoring. I graduated from William and Mary with an MEd in Education.


I have been a teacher for 50+ years and tutor in an after school elementary literacy program. We often are teaching phonics. As a science teacher, I often teach my students how to phonetically pronounce words. My youngest son is autistic and has language development issues and I have been working with him and his speech therapist for 14 years.

Study Skills

I have 30+ years of teaching experience. I work with all of my students on study skills. It is part of my job as a teacher to teach them how to read a chapter, outline it, organize notes and worksheets, etc. From these materials I work with them on developing a study guide and anticipating the test questions from each section in the book. I use the Cornell Method of Note taking and use it with my students. One of the reasons our students have difficulty studying is because they are not organized and cannot anticipate test questions.


I have a degree in Biology from Virginia Commonwealth University where I took classes in both Vertebrate Zoology and Invertebrate Zoology. I have been teaching Zoology for 25 years with a high rate of success and feel that I can more than adequately tutor in this subject area.


I have a biology degree from Virginia Commonwealth University where I took numerous classes on plants and plant classification. In addition to that I have 25 years' teaching experience in Botany. As a hobby I am a master gardener and frequently lead plant identification trips to the Blue Ridge Mountains for the Virginia Living Museum.


I have worked with children with ADD/ADHD for over 30 years. My school schedules students with this diagnosis into my classes on purpose. I also have three children with this diagnosis so I have personal as well as educational knowledge on this topic.


I have been teaching genetics for 30+ years at the high school and college level. I tutor and work on curriculum development for my school system and for the DOE. I have also worked on textbook preparation for this subject for several publishing companies.


I have completed several studies about humanity on various levels, putting a strong emphasis on political systems and how human beings respond to change. During the course of teaching in an Alternative Education Environment I have written several published papers exploring race, ethnicity and sex and what role these play in political and educational systems. I use quantitative, qualitative and comparative research to gather and analyze data.


I have 30+ years of teaching experience in the state of Virginia. I have taught multiple subjects that are SOL based since there development. I worked on the committee to develop the SOL's and still write SOL questions in several topics (Earth Science, Biology, Chemistry, Algebra I and Geometry).

Social Studies

I hold a Virginia Teaching Endorsement in Social Studies. While I do not actively teach this subject, I work closely with and often cover classes for our social studies teacher at school. I generally sit in his class one class period a day to assist special needs students, so I hear the lectures and materials and am familiar with the SOL test requirements.